Seafood Fridays – Crawfish Etouffee

Do you believe in love at first bite?

I can recall the exact moment when I fell in love with this dish. That’s because it was the same moment that I fell in love with the city and culture of New Orleans.

It was June, 1987. My girlfriend at the time and I had just made the long drive from Chicago to New Orleans for a week-long vacation. After getting settled in our hotel, we wandered the French Quarter for the first time.

I had never been to Europe (still haven’t, in fact), so the narrow, European-style streets filled with colorfully painted buildings with elaborate wrought-iron balconies billowing with the summer’s first flowers was like something out of a dream.

Hungry from our trip, we ended up at the Cafe Royale, where we were seated on the second-floor balcony overlooking the carnival-like atmosphere on Royale Street below us.

Even though I had never eaten crawfish before, I ordered the crawfish etouffee because it was the house specialty and because it just felt right. I was rewarded for my adventurousness with a bowl of one of the most amazing things I had ever eaten. Dark brown, slightly nutty and creamy, sweet deliciousness.

I distinctly remember taking my first bite of that wonderful stew, looking out over the Vieux Carre and thinking, “I love this. All of it.” It was one of those moments of perfect happiness that the late Spalding Gray used to talk about in his monologues.

This particular recipe doesn’t come close to approximating that first intoxicating bowl of crawfish etouffee. In fact, I substituted shrimp because the only crawfish I could find were whole, pre-cooked ones and that wouldn’t work. Chopped small, the shrimp were a good substitute and the flavor of this etouffee was close enough to transport me back to that moment in time.

This recipe also features another New Orleans tradition, Tony Chachere’s Original Creole Seasoning, also known as simply “Tony’s”. In fact, I adapted this recipe from one on their website. I’ve mentioned Tony’s in the past because it is a good, versatile seasoning for everything from soups to meats to seafood or even barbeque.

Crawfish Etouffee

4 TBS Unsalted butter

1 lb Raw crawfish tails (or shrimp)

3 TBS Tony’s

1 White onion, medium dice

1/2 Green bell pepper, ribs and seeds removed, medium dice

1 Jalapeno, ribs and seeds removed, medium dice

2 cloves Garlic, crushed

1 tsp Corn starch

1 cup Water

1 Green Onion, sliced

Brown rice, cooked

1. Melt butter in sauce pan. Meanwhile, toss the crawfish with the Tony’s then saute in the butter for 3 minutes. Remove from pan with a slotted spoon and set aside.

2. In the same pot, add the onions, peppers and garlic and saute 10 minutes. Return the crawfish to the pot.

3. Dissolve the corn starch into the water then pour into the pot. Cover, bring to a boil, reduce to a simmmer, then cook gently for 20 minutes. Season with black pepper — you won’t need any more salt due to Tony’s being pretty salty — and serve over brown rice, garnished with scallions.

I served my etouffee with jalapeno cornbread, changing the recipe slightly by substituting whole wheat flour for the all-purpose flour. It had very little impact on the flavor but added more nutritional value.

Has a dish you’ve eaten ever made you fall in love with a particular city? Share your story in the comments section below. And thanks for looking at my blog!


Seafood Friday – Shrimp

You are more likely to find shrimp on any restaurant’s menu than any other kind of seafood.

That’s probably because shrimp is relatively inexpensive, can be found just about anywhere there is salt water, and has a delicious, sweet flavor that can be paired with just about anything.

Five things you might not know about shrimp:

1. Shrimp and prawns are the same thing. In India, the world’s largest shrimp-farming nation, all shrimplike animals are called prawns. However, in the US and UK, the term “prawn” generally is reserved for large shrimps.

2. Above a certain size, you need to remove the shrimp’s digestive tract prior to cooking it. This is known as deveining the shrimp. After peeling away the shrimp’s shell, simply make a shallow incision down the shrimp’s back and use the blade of the knife to remove the vein. In some cases the vein is easy to see because it is full of partially digested shrimp food, in others it’s nearly transparent. Then rinse the shrimp under cold water for a moment. Or you can buy deveined shrimp for a few cents more per pound.

3. Some shrimp have hard shells like lobsters. Rock shrimp, which are found off the Atlantic coast from Norfolk, Virginia, to the Bahamas, used to be discarded by fishermen because its shell was too hard to remove. But around 1970 a machine was invented that easily shells rock shrimp and since then its lobster-like meat has become a popular part of many menus.

4. Unless you live right on the water, most shrimp you buy will be frozen or has been frozen at some point during its journey to market. That’s because shrimp is highly perishable. Many commercial shrimpers process and freeze the shrimp right there on the boat to immediately halt decay in quality.

5. Sea monkeys, the popular “family of pets” that were promoted in advertisements in the back of comic books in the 1970s actually were freeze-dried brine shrimp. When you placed them in water, they ended their suspended animation and came to life. They didn’t really look like people, though.

This reduced-fat recipe for white shrimp with oricchiette pasta with a tomato cream sauce is fast, easy and delicious. Oricchiette is Italian for “little pigs’ ears” and refers to the shape of the pasta. If you can’t find it at your market, you can substitute any pasta you prefer.

White Shrimp with Oricchiette Pasta in a Tomato Cream Sauce

1/2 lb White shrimp, defrosted, peeled and deveined

2 cloves Garlic, crushed

3 TBS Extra virgin olive oil, separated, with a little more for the pasta

1/2 White onion, small dice

1/2 Green bell pepper, ribs and seeds removed, small dice

1 Jalapeno, ribs and seeds removed, small dice

6 oz Can of tomato sauce

1 tsp Dried basil (or fresh)

1 tsp Dried oregano (or fresh)

1/3 cup Fat-free half and half

1/4 cup Grated parmesan cheese, plus a little more for garnish

1 lb Oricchiette pasta

Sea salt

Fresh cracked black pepper

1/4 cup Parsley, chopped fine

1. Combine shrimp, garlic and TBS of EVOO in a small bowl, coating all shrimp in oil and evenly distributing garlic. Cover with plastic wrap and refrigerate at least 30 minutes.

2. Bring a large pot of water to a boil. Add pasta and cook according to package instructions, usually about 9-10 minutes. Drain but don’t rinse. Return to pot. Drizzle in a little EVOO, add a little salt and pepper and toss. Set aside

3. Put a sauce pot over a medium heat. When hot, add 1 TBS EVOO. When smoking, add onion, green pepper and jalapeno and cook until onion translucent, about five minutes. Stir in tomato sauce, basil and oregano. When sauce begins to bubble, reduce to a simmer, cover and cook about five minutes so the flavors can meld together. Then whisk in the fat-free half and half and season to taste with salt and pepper. Just before serving, stir in the parmesan cheese.

4. Put a non-stick sautee pan over a medium heat. When hot, add just a drop of EVOO. When smoking add shrimp and all of the marinade. Saute until shrimp are cooked through, about three to four minutes.

5. To assemble, pile pasta in the center of a pasta bowl. Use a kitchen spoon or a tablespoon to ladle a little sauce over the top, then use a tongs to carefully arrange shrimp evenly around the sides of the pasta, leaving spaces between each shrimp. Garnish with parsley and additional parmesan.


Seafood Fridays – Shrimp and Grits

Do you know what it means to miss New Orleans? I do.

I haven’t been back down to the Crescent City since 2007’s Jazz and Heritage Festival, but I keep tabs on what’s happening by tuning in to WWOZ online every day.

And I reconnect with the city periodically from a culinary perspective, such as this recipe for shrimp and grits.

Up north, grits aren’t as big a deal as they are down south. We prefer polenta, which is also made of corn meal, but usually has a slightly finer grind.

But unlike polenta, grits have the ability to jump from your breakfast bowl onto your dinner plate, where they can serve as a delicious anchor for almost any dish: Shrimp and gits, pork and grits, chicken and grits. If I ever were to open a Southern-style restaurant, I would simply call it “And Grits”.

Grits can be sweet or savory. This past Sunday I took my daughter, Maggie Mae, out to brunch at Stanley’s — a great bar/restaurant in Chicago’s Lincoln Park neighborhood near DePaul University, where she goes to school — and among their breakfast offerings were grits sweetened with honey. They were fabulous.

For this recipe, I made standard grits —  with just water and little salt — then ramped them up at the end with butter and a ton of grated parmesan cheese. The result were creamy, nutty grits that perfectly complemented the strong flavors of the shrimp. Even my wife loved it, and she usually won’t eat shrimp.

I decorated the plate with a little braised green chard and some roasted corn-black bean salsa. It not only tasted great, but it looked pretty fantastic as well. I’ll have to save this one for the menu at “And Grits”.

Shrimp and Grits

1/2 lb 16/20 Shrimp, peeled and deveined

2 cloves Garlic, crushed

2 TBS Extra virgin olive oil

1 tsp Sesame oil

1 tsp Worcestershire sauce

1 tsp Pick-a-Peppa Sauce

Dash red pepper flake

Fresh cracked black pepper

6 TBS Grits (not instant)

2 cups Water

Dash sea salt

2 TBS Whole butter

1/4 cup Grated parmesan cheese

For the Roasted Corn-Black Bean Salsa

1 can Black beans, drained

2 ears Corn, shucked and boiled

3 Tomatoes, ribs and seed removed, small dice

1/4 cup Red onion, small dice

2 TBS Cilantro, chopped

2 TBS Parsley, chopped

2 Green onions, sliced thin


Coarse salt

Fresh cracked black pepper

1. Combine shrimp, EVOO, sesame oil, Worcester and Pick-A-Peppa sauces, and red pepper flake in a mixing bowl, season to taste with black pepper, cover and place in refrigerator to marinate at least 30 minutes.

2. Place grits, water and salt in a small pot, cover, bring to a boil, reduce to a simmer and cook until thickened, about 10 minutes, stirring occasionally. Turn off heat and let sit at least 10 minutes, then fold in butter and parmesan cheese.

3. Roast corn cobs on the grill until they get a char, then cut the kernels off the cob and combine with all the remaining salsa ingredients. Season to taste with coarse salt and black pepper, cover and marinate in the refrigerator until ready to plate. Using coarse salt rather than sea salt gives the salsa a little crunch.

4. Saute shrimp with marinade in non-stick pan until cooked through, about 4 minutes. To plate, pile grits in the center of the plate and arrange shrimp decoratively on top of the grits. Spoon salsa so that it is falling off the shrimp and grits. Garnish if you want with a little braised greens.

Now that the Lenten season is ending, I have to decide whether to continue Seafood Fridays or not. Does anybody have an opinion? I would love to hear it. And thanks for looking at my blog!

Seafood Fridays – Shrimp Fried Rice

Fish on Fridays is a new feature I’m starting this week. Throughout the season of Lent — and possibly beyond if it is popular — I will be featuring one of my favorite seafood dishes each Friday.

For the very first week, I have one of my favorites: Shrimp Fried Rice.

Any kind of fried rice is fine by me, but for this one I was inspired by this blog written by one of my favorite bloggers, My Vegetarian Kitchen. In it, she stated that she was going to see how long she could make meals for her family using only the food she already had in her home. With a few exceptions, she is going to try and not to buy anything else until she runs out of food.

Personally, it always seems like I have way too much food lying around for just the two of us. Despite this, I go to the grocery store almost every day to get more things.

So, inspired by Sarpeet’s blog, I decided to try to go at least one day without buying more food. Fortunately, I happened to have a pound of shrimp on hand that somehow failed to make it into the jambalaya casserole the day before.

Anything fried rice is fine by me, but shrimp is one of my favorites. This meal is easy to make, cooks fast, is inexpensive and turned out especially delicious. Plus, because my wife, Sandi, is not a fan of shrimp I got it all to myself! Bonus!

Shrimp Fried Rice

1 lb medium raw shrimp, peeled and deveined, tails removed

1 TBS Extra virgin olive oil

1/2 green bell pepper, ribs and seeds removed, julienned

1/2 yellow bell pepper, ribs and seeds removed, julienned

1/2 white onion, julienned

2 cloves garlic, crushed

1 TBS  fresh ginger, peeled and chopped fine

1/4 cup low-sodium soy sauce

1 TBS sesame oil

1 tsp Sriracha sauce

1 cup rice, cooked

1. Combine shrimp, garlic, ginger, soy sauce and sesame oil in a small bowl, toss well, cover with plastic and place in refrigerator for at least 30 minutes to marinate.

2. Put cast iron pan on fire. When hot, add oil. When smoking, add onions and peppers. Cook until onions soft and slightly browned, about 7 minutes, stirring frequently. Add shrimp and all of the marinade and cook another 2 minutes then add the rice and cook for another minute, stirring frequently.

3. Dissolve corn starch in water and pour into pan. Stir until liquid begins to thicken, about two minutes. Stir in Sriracha sauce then remove from heat.

4. To plate, pile in center of pasta bowl and garnish with either a sprig of parsley or chopped parsley for color.

With some fried rice recipes, I will throw an egg in right at the end, but I left it out of this one because there already was enough protein with all the shrimp, but feel free to add one if you like.

What are some of your favorite seafood dishes that we can feature in Seafood Fridays? Let me know and I’ll try to do as many as I can. And thanks for looking at my blog!

Shrimp Creole

I know a lot of people who are afraid of shrimp.

Maybe it is because when they are raw they look like little insects or perhaps because you have to peel and de-vein them before cooking them, but some people just opt out of shrimp altogether.

Which is a terrible shame because shrimp are one of the most affordable, delicious, healthy and versatile seafood you can find. Shrimp cocktail, shrimp shish-ka-bobs, shrimp with pasta, fried shrimp, popcorn shrimp, and peel and eat shrimp are all among my favorite menu items.

Unless you live on the Gulf Coast or in Thailand, the shrimp you buy at the market were almost certainly frozen at some point during their journey. That’s because fresh shrimp are highly perishable and unless you are cooking and consuming them right off the shrimping boat, they need to be frozen to maintain their quality.

Some shrimpers freeze and package the shrimp at sea on factory boats. Others process their haul at giant factories next to the docks. In the US, most shrimp come from the Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi and Alabama coasts.

Fun fact: When you buy boxed shrimp that is frozen, it usually is the same as the shrimp displayed in your grocer’s seafood department. In most cases, they just took it out of the box and defrosted it first.

Shrimp is sold by its size, with the biggest shrimp costing the most. Shrimp are priced by the number of peices of shrimp it takes to make a pound — 41/50, for example, means it takes between 41 and 50 shrimp of that size to make a pound.

I usually use 16/20 shrimp which typically cost about $5 to $6/lb. But you can buy shrimp that go all the way up to U10 (under-10 shrimp to the pound), which at that point are basically like small lobsters.

This classic New Orleans recipe is delicious even for people who don’t usually like shrimp because the sweetness of the shrimp perfectly complements the tangy, slightly spicy flavor of the sauce.

Shrimp Creole

1 lb 16/20 shrimp, peeled and deveined

2 TBS unsalted butter


1 onion, medium dice

2 stalks celery, ribs and leaves included, medium dice

1 green bell pepper, ribs and seeds removed, medium dice

3 cloves garlic, crushed

3 TBS all-purpose flour

1 8-oz can of tomato sauce

1 cup water

Juice of one lemon

2 bay leaves

1/4 tsp granulated sugar

1/4 tsp cayenne pepper

1 TBS tomato paste

2 to 3 shakes of Worchestersire sauce

Sea salt to taste

1/2 cup green onions, sliced thin

1. Peel shrimp by tearing away the shell starting at the legs, then carefully tugging off the shell at the tail. De-vein shrimp by using a paring knife to make a shallow cut down the back, then use the knife to pull out the vein and discard. Rinse shrimp under cold water and refrigerate until ready to use.

2. Put pot on fire and add oil and butter. When butter melts, add onions, green pepper and celery and cook until onion translucent, about five minutes. Add garlic and bay leaf and cook another minute, then add flour and stir around, forming a kind of pot roux.

3. When flour begins to turn slightly brown, add the tomato sauce, water, lemon juice, sugar, and cayenne. Bring to a boil then reduce to a simmer. Stir in tomato paste and Worcestersire sauce. The Creole sauce should thicken to the consistency of creamed soup. If it gets too thick, thin it out with a little additional water. Simmer 30 minutes.

4. Add shrimp and stir so that all shrimp are completely coated with sauce, then simmer an additional 15 minutes, stirring once or twice. Season to taste with salt. Serve over brown rice or pasta and garnish with green onions.

Are you afraid of shrimp? Don’t be, but tell us why in the comments section below. And thanks for looking at my blog!



Something you may not know about me: New Orleans is my favorite city.

Although I’ve never been lucky enough to live there, I try to get there as often as I can, especially during the city’s big Jazz and Heritage Festival in the spring. I just love the music, the European flavor of the French Quarter, the quirky neighborhoods, and especially the food.

My love for the Crescent City has crept onto numerous menus at restaurants where I have worked, sometimes for no reason other than I love the cuisine. Whenever I get lonesome for that town, I stop by one of my favorite Chicago restaurants, Heaven on Seven, a Creole and Cajun inspired joint that has some of the best food I’ve had anywhere outside Louisiana.

Digging around my refrigerator the other day, I noticed I had some leftover chicken, sausage and shrimp. Jambalaya, I immediately thought. With the Bears playing the Saints this weekend, what could be better than this all-time New Orleans favorite.

Jambalaya with Jalapeno Cornbread

Jambalaya with Jalapeno Cornbread

This recipe is simple, inexpensive and delicious. It’s a great way to use up odds and ends from your fridge or freezer. Chicken, Andouille sausage and shrimp are the traditional ingredients, but really you can make it with anything you have, including straight vegetarian.

You can cook it in your slow cooker, but I couldn’t wait that long so I cooked it up on the stove top. And I just had to serve it with some jalapeno cornbread.


1 or 2 boneless skinless chicken breasts

1 or 2 Italian sausage links (or Andouille, if you can find it), cut into 1-2 inch peices

1/2 lb large shrimp, peeled and deveined

1 cup white onion, diced

1 green pepper, seeds and ribs removed, diced

2 stalks celery, diced

2 cloves garlic, minced

1 TBS all-purpose flour

2 TBS tomato paste

15 oz can of diced tomatoes

3/4 cup white rice (not instant, puh-lease!)

1 bay leaf

1/2 cup chicken broth

3/4 cup water

1 TBS Tony Chachere’s Original Creole Seasoning (usually just referred to as “Tony’s”) (You can substitute with Old Bay or any kind of Cajun or Creole seasoning)


Sea salt and cracked black pepper to taste

1. Preheat oven to 375. Heat 1 TBS EVOO in cast iron skillet. When oil starts to smoke, add chicken and sausage, seasoning with S&P. Let brown, about 2 minutes, then turn and season and brown the other side a minute, then throw the whole pan in the oven to finish cooking, about 7 minutes. Remove and set aside for later.

2. In large pot, heat 1 TBS EVOO. When oil starts to smoke, add onion, green pepper, celery and bay leaf. Sweat until onion is translucent, about 5 minutes. Add the tomato paste and cook for about another 1-2 minutes, stirring frequently so it doesn’t burn. Add the chicken stock, water, Tony’s, diced chicken and sausage and stir. Bring to a boil, reduce to simmer, cover and cook until rice is done, about 25 minutes.

3. Combine the shrimp with 1 TBS of EVOO and sprinkle with 1 tsp Tony’s. Refrigerate to let flavors marinate. Just before service, in hot saute pan, drizzle a little EVOO. When oil starts to smoke, add shrimp. Saute until done, about 3-4 minutes, flipping once or twice.

To plate, use a kitchen spoon to build a big pile of jambalaya in the center of a pasta bowl. Arrange the shrimp around the pile. Garnish with parsley sprig or chopped parsley.

Jalapeno Cornbread

Jalapeno Cornbread

Jalapeno Cornbread

1 cup All Purpose Flour

2 TBS sugar

TBS baking powder

½ tsp salt

1 cup yellow cornmeal

1 cup milk

2 eggs, beaten

¼ cup vegetable oil

3-4 jalapenos, ribs and seeds removed, diced

Preheat oven to 425F. Grease your cast iron skillet with pan spray and throw it in the oven.

1. While the oven is warming, combine milk, eggs and oil in a bowl. In another bowl, combine flour, sugar, baking powder, salt and cornmeal. Slowly stir liquid mixture into powder mixture just until batter is wet. Fold in jalapenos, then use potholders to remove skillet from oven and pour batter into skillet.

2. Cook for about 25 minutes or until toothpick comes out clean.

This recipe can also be made in a 9”x9” baking dish that has been sprayed with cooking spray.

Do you love New Orleans cooking as much as I do? What are your favorite dishes? Let us know in the comments section below.

Laissez les bons temps rouler!

Hail Caesar!

Ah, the Caesar Salad. The workhorse of most restaurant salad stations.

People love Caesar Salad. It never seems to go out of style, ever since Caesar Cardini first invented it at his restaurant in Tijuana, Mexico, back in the 1920s.

Every restaurant I have ever worked in (or eaten in, for that matter) has had it on the menu. And it’s always one of the top sellers.

Chicken Caesar Salad

Chicken Caesar Salad

Making a Caesar Salad can be as simple or as complicated as you like. You can find ready-to-serve Caesar Salad kits at most grocery stores that include the pre-cut Romaine lettuce, an envelope of dressing, croutons and parmesan. But these are expensive and, seriously, they lack creativity.

Instead, why not make your own homemade Caesar Salad, with freshly toasted croutons,
handmade dressing (it’s really simple), and freshly grated or shaved parmesan? Top it off
with some sliced grilled chicken breast or shrimp and you’ve got yourself a  satisfying an delicious meal for your family. Plus you can make it for far, far  less than you would pay at a restaurant.

The croutons and dressing, even the cut and cleaned lettuce, can be prepared a day or two ahead of time.

But before we begin, a few words on salads. Because most of the ingredients are raw, it is important that you select the best quality you can find. In cooked dishes, sub-par quality can often be masked, but not in salads.

I strongly recommend you make your own dressings. It is so easy and much less expensive than the lower-quality store-bought varieties. The trick is to use the best quality extra virgin olive oil that you can afford. The full, fruity flavor of a good quality EVOO can transform an ordinary salad into something magical.

Finally, make sure you wash all your greens thoroughly. Most commercial lettuces are
grown in soil that is mostly sand. You will want to ensure that there is no unpleasant grittiness to your salads. If you have one, use a salad spinner (I LOOOVE my salad spinner! If I weren’t already married, I’d marry my salad spinner).

If not, rinse your greens in cold water, let drain in a colander and pat dry with paper towels, being careful not to bruise the leaves. Make sure your greens are thoroughly drained. You don’t want a pool of water in the bottom of the bowl.

At Caesar’s Restaurant, making the signature salad was done tableside, a showcase that delighted diners and created lifelong memories. For a special experience, try assembling your salad for your family at the dinner table. It’s fun and gives you a chance to show off a little. For bonus points, chill your salad plates and forks by throwing them in the refrigerator about an hour before service.

There are four elements to the Caesar Salad – the romaine lettuce, the croutons, the dressing and the parmesan.

For the lettuce, use hearts of romaine if possible, the crisp, inner leaves of a head of romaine. These often sold separately, or you can buy a whole head of romaine and either discard the outer leaves or save them in a plastic bag for another time. Back in the day, Cardini would leave the leaves whole; it makes for a nice presentation. Otherwise, cut them into bite-sized pieces and set aside.

Crusty Homemade Croutons

2 cups French bread cut into ¾ inch cubes


2 cloves garlic, crushed

Salt and Pepper to taste

In a mixing bowl, whisk the garlic into the oil. Add the bread cubes and toss. Season lightly with S&P. Lay out evenly on a sheet pan and toast in a 225F oven until crisp, about 25 minutes. Remove and let cool. These can be kept fresh in an airtight container for up to a week.

Caesar Dressing

1 egg yolk

Juice of 1 lemon

1 cloves garlic, crushed

¾ cup EVOO

½ tsp Worcestershire

1 TBS grated parmesan

Coarse Sea Salt

For Plating/Presentation 

Fresh shaved or grated parmesan

Fresh Ground Black Pepper

Combine the lemon juice, garlic and egg yolks in food processor or mixing bowl and whisk together thoroughly. Slowly add the EVOO, starting with a drop a time then gradually adding more, until all is emulsified into the dressing. Finish by folding in the grated parmesan and season with salt. Transfer to a covered container and refrigerate for at least 30 minutes to the flavors can meld together.

It’s Showtime: Assembling the Caesar Salad

In a large mixing bowl, add the romaine and ¾ of the croutons and toss. Slowly and dramatically drizzle the dressing over the lettuce and carefully toss with wooden fork and spoon. Add about half the parmesan and toss again. Make tall piles of the salad on the chilled salad plates. Top each with a few of the remaining croutons and finally spinkle the
remaining cheese over the top. Grind fresh pepper over each and distribute.

You’re a pro!

Make a meal out of your Caesar Salad by adding a grilled chicken breast or some grilled shrimp.

Shrimp Caesar Salad

Shrimp Caesar Salad